Medical Dictionary of Health Terms: Q-Z

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Q

quadriplegia: Paralysis of all limbs, often introduced on by a excessive neck injury.

quantitative computed tomography: A modification of computed tomography that provides measurements of bone mass along with an image.

quarantine: A time interval whereby a sick particular person is prevented others to forestall the unfold of sickness.

quick relievers: Drugs that quickly open the bronchial tubes by gratifying the muscle tissues surrounding these airways.

quiet sleep: Any sleep except for REM sleep, whereby contemplating and most physiological actions gradual, nonetheless movement nonetheless occurs. Often known as non-REM sleep.

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R

radial tunnel syndrome: A state of affairs whereby the radial nerve is compressed on the elbow, inflicting ache, numbness, tingling, and muscle weak level inside the hand and arm.

radiation: Power inside the kind of particles or waves, equal to x-rays and gamma rays. Radiation is often used to help make a evaluation, as in x-rays, or as a remedy for many cancers.

radiation treatment: Therapy with high-energy rays (from x-rays or totally different sources) designed to control sickness and destroy most cancers cells.

radical prostatectomy: Surgical procedure to remove all of the prostate.

radiculopathy: Ache introduced on by irritation of a nerve as a result of it exits the spinal wire.

radioactive iodine: A radioactive kind of iodine that may be utilized as a tracer all through a radioactive iodine uptake examine or a radioactive thyroid scan. A lot greater portions are used inside the remedy of hyperthyroidism.

radioallergosorbent examine: A blood examine used for determining allergens.

radiofrequency: A non-surgical methodology using an electromagnetic current to penetrate deep into the physique’s tissues, which may be utilized to take care of ache, most cancers, and coronary coronary heart rhythm issues, amongst totally different conditions.

radiograph: One other title for an x-ray.

radionuclide imaging or scan: One other title for nuclear exams: exams that use tiny portions of short-lived radioactive substances that will aim particular organs or cell receptors to diagnose sickness.

radionuclides: Quick-lived radioactive chemical substances which is likely to be utilized in nuclear imaging exams.

rales: Irregular lung sounds that might be a sign of fluid buildup congestion inside the lungs.

randomized: A attribute of many scientific trials whereby people are randomly assigned to each a bunch to be examined or a administration group.

randomized managed trial: A look at whereby researchers choose a look at inhabitants at random; one group receives the intervention (equal to a dietary complement) and one different group receives a placebo. Usually generally known as an RCT.

fluctuate of motion: The extent of movement—and thus flexibility—in a joint, measured inside the ranges of a circle.

speedy eye movement sleep: A interval of intense thoughts train all through sleep, often associated to needs; named for the speedy eye actions that occur all through this time. Often known as dreaming sleep.

RAST: Abbreviation for radioallergosorbent examine, a blood examine used for determining allergens.

Raynaud’s syndrome: A state of affairs whereby the blood vessels inside the fingers and totally different extremities slender in response to chilly or stress, inflicting them to point out white or blue.

RCT: Abbreviation for randomized managed trial, a look at whereby researchers choose a look at inhabitants at random; one group receives the intervention (equal to a dietary complement) and one different group receives a placebo.

RDA: Abbreviation for advisable dietary allowance, the standard day-to-day amount of a nutrient that may meet the dietary desires of nearly all (97%-98%) healthful people at specific phases of their lives.

reactive arthritis: Joint points triggered by bacterial or viral an an infection elsewhere inside the physique.

rebound insomnia: Insomnia introduced on by withdrawal from sleep treatment; usually it’s a minimal of as essential as sooner than the treatment was used.

receptors: Buildings on the pores and skin of a cell membrane that permit attachment of specific chemical substances.

recessive: A gene that received’t be expressed inside the offspring till it’s inherited from every the mother and father. A recessive gene from one mom or father that’s paired with a dominant gene from the alternative mom or father will probably be overridden by the dominant gene.

recombinant tissue plasminogen activator: A thrombolytic (clot-dissolving) drug made using recombinant DNA experience; used to dissolve blood clots inflicting an ischemic stroke, pulmonary embolism, or myocardial infarction.

advisable dietary allowance: The widespread day-to-day amount of a nutrient that may meet the dietary desires of nearly all (97%-98%) healthful people at specific phases of their lives.

restoration: A way of overcoming behavior to alcohol, totally different psychoactive substance, or addictive habits. Usually this features a dedication to abstinence, nonetheless typically it consists of lowered use considerably than full abstinence.

rectocele: A weakening of the vaginal wall that allows the rectum to bulge into the vagina.

rectum: The ultimate 12 centimeters of the colon, by the use of which waste is eradicated from the physique.

refraction: The deflection of sunshine as a result of it passes by the use of one medium to a special of varied density; moreover refers a watch fastened examine to evaluate the eye’s potential to focus.

regurgitation: Leakage of blood once more proper right into a coronary coronary heart chamber that occurs when a coronary coronary heart valve doesn’t shut appropriately

rehabilitative driving specialist: Educated educated to evaluate driving skills and, when acceptable, counsel gear and variations to make driving safer for folk with certain bodily or psychological limitations.

rejection: A response that occurs when a person’s immune system acknowledges a transplanted organ as a threatening substance and tries to rid the physique of it.

relapse: The return of indicators and sickness after a person seems to have recovered.

leisure response: The bodily outcomes of meditation and certain totally different strategies which is likely to be reverse to those of the stress response. Results embrace marked drops in oxygen consumption, carbon dioxide expiration, heartbeat, and respiration, along with stabilization or reducing of blood stress.

REM: Abbreviation for quick eye movement, which occurs all through a interval of sleep characterised by intense thoughts train, often associated to needs.

REM habits dysfunction: A sleep drawback marked by movement all through REM sleep, when muscle tissues are often paralyzed.

REM rebound: An enhance in REM sleep, often with nightmares, that occurs after deprivation of REM sleep or the withdrawal of REM-suppressing medication.

remission: A lessening inside the severity of a sickness and its indicators. In most cancers, a reduction inside the dimension of a tumor and its indicators.

remodeling: Altering a physique half. Bone is frequently being reworked in response to coach or inactivity. Coronary heart tissue is reworked in response to a coronary coronary heart assault or hypertension.

renal: Pertaining to the kidneys.

renal artery stenosis: Narrowing of an artery that gives blood to the kidney.

renin: An enzyme launched by the kidney that stimulates manufacturing of angiotensin and aldosterone, two substances inside the physique that impact blood stress.

reperfusion: Re-establishing blood transfer, equal to when a blockage in a coronary artery that’s inflicting a coronary coronary heart assault is cleared.

reperfusion treatment: Methods used to restart circulation to part of the heart or thoughts that has been decrease off from blood transfer all through a coronary coronary heart assault or stroke. Reperfusion might entail clot-dissolving medicine, balloon angioplasty, or surgical process.

repetitions: Variety of situations an prepare requires a muscle to be labored and launched (usually eight to 12). Usually generally known as reps.

resection: The surgical elimination of a lesion or half or all of an organ or totally different physique building.

resectoscope: An instrument that enables a surgeon to view the inside of a physique cavity in an effort to remove a part of an organ or building.

reservoir: The habitat whereby an infectious agent often lives, grows, and multiplies. Reservoirs embrace human, animal, and environmental reservoirs.

resilience: The potential to adapt to fluctuate and get higher quickly from setbacks equal to illness, injury, or misfortune.

resistance: The potential of a pathogen to withstand medicine beforehand environment friendly in opposition to them. Normally the outcomes of genetic mutation.

resistant hypertension: Excessive blood stress that doesn’t reply to drug treatment and lifestyle changes.

resorption: The elimination of bone tissue, every mineral and protein, by osteoclasts.

respiration: The course of by which gases enter the physique, along with exterior respiration (respiration), and inside respiration, whereby oxygen taken in by the lungs is carried by the blood to tissues and carbon dioxide is eradicated.

restenosis: Renarrowing of a blood vessel that has been widened with angioplasty.

resting vitality expenditure: The value at which the physique burns power whereas at rest. Resting vitality expenditure accounts for 60%-75% of the day-to-day power burned.

pressured legs syndrome: Achy or unpleasant feelings inside the legs associated to a necessity to maneuver. Most distinguished at night, making it arduous to fall asleep or maintain asleep.

resuscitation: The strategy of reviving a person who isn’t respiration or whose coronary coronary heart isn’t beating using strategies equal to artificial respiration and coronary coronary heart therapeutic therapeutic massage.

retina: The innermost layer of the eye, which converts mild vitality to electrical vitality and sends seen pictures to the thoughts by the use of the optic nerve.

retinal detachment: A state of affairs whereby the retina separates from the choroid (the once more of the eye) and ends in an absence of imaginative and prescient.

retinoid: A man-made, vitamin A-like compound.

retrieval: The act of recalling beforehand found knowledge, involving the reactivation of particular nerve-cell pathways inside the thoughts related to that piece of information.

retrograde ejaculation: An antagonistic impression of every prostate surgical process and some medication that causes semen to maneuver once more into the bladder considerably than out by the use of the penis.

retrospective look at: A evaluation methodology that seems for attainable causes for a gift sickness by inspecting a look at inhabitants’s earlier habits.

revascularization: Restoration of blood transfer to areas of coronary coronary heart muscle affected by coronary artery sickness by way of coronary artery bypass surgical process or angioplasty.

reward insufficiency idea: The idea that some people flip to behavior to compensate for an lack of capacity to sufficiently experience pleasure.

reward pathway: An interrelated set of thoughts areas which is likely to be all involved in recognizing, experiencing, and remembering pleasurable or rewarding events.

rheumatic sickness: Any thought of one in every of over 100 issues that set off irritation in connective tissues.

rheumatism: Ache and stiffness of soppy tissues in and spherical joints.

rheumatoid arthritis: An inflammatory autoimmune sickness that generally assaults the connective tissue of the joints, inflicting them to develop to be painful, contaminated, and usually deformed.

rheumatoid subject: An antibody current in about 85% of people with rheumatoid arthritis; moreover appears in several diseases and usually in healthful people.

rheumatologist: A medical doctor educated to diagnose and take care of issues involving irritation of the joints and totally different parts of the musculoskeletal system.

rheumatology: The division of medicine devoted to the look at and remedy of diseases marked by irritation, degeneration, or metabolic problems with the connective tissues (considerably the joints and related buildings).

rhinoplasty: Reshaping the cartilage and bone of the nostril to achieve the desired profile. Generally generally called a nostril job.

rhytidectomy: A surgical course of that features eradicating further pores and pores and skin and tightening the underlying muscle to acceptable sagging throughout the jaws, jowls, and neck. Doesn’t embrace work on the eyes or forehead. Generally generally called a face elevate.

correct atrium: The correct greater chamber of the heart; it receives partially deoxygenated blood as a result of it returns from the physique’s tissues and strikes it into the correct ventricle for distribution to the lungs.

correct coronary artery: One of many principal coronary arteries that gives blood to the heart; this vessel gives the correct and reduce part of the heart.

correct ventricle: The correct lower chamber of the heart; it receives blood from the correct atrium for distribution to the lungs.

ringworm: An itchy state of affairs of the scalp introduced on by a fungal an an infection. Additionally generally called tinea capitis.

Rinne examine: A straightforward listening to examine that makes use of a tuning fork to seek out out what sort of listening to loss a person has.

hazard subject: Any subject that will set off a person to be further liable to develop a sickness. As an illustration, smoking is a hazard subject for lung most cancers.

harmful ingesting: Ingesting that may enhance the chances of antagonistic penalties; ingesting higher than tips about cheap ingesting counsel.

RLS: Abbreviation for pressured legs syndrome, an achy or unpleasant feelings inside the legs associated to a necessity to maneuver. Most distinguished at night, making it arduous to fall asleep or maintain asleep.

rods: Mild-sensitive cells inside the retina that reply best in darkness and dim mild.

root: The portion of the tooth beneath the gum line.

root canal: A channel inside the root of the tooth that accommodates the pulp.

root canal treatment: A course of whereby diseased pulp tissue is far from the pulp chamber and root canal and the world is sealed off.

rosacea: A pores and pores and skin state of affairs that enlarges blood vessels inside the face, inflicting redness of the nostril and totally different parts of the face.

rotator cuff: A bunch of tendons and muscle tissues used to spice up the arm from the aspect and rotating the shoulder.

roughage: Indigestible dietary fiber current in grains, fruits, greens, and totally different meals. Roughage is assumed to help cease conditions equal to constipation.

rupture: A tear or break in an organ or tissue. Tissue that protrudes by the use of the rupture is called a hernia.

ruptured disk: When part of a spinal disk bulges out of a tear or weak spot inside the disk’s highly effective outer shell. Additionally generally called prolapsed disk or herniated disk.

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S

sacroiliitis: Irritation of the sacroiliac joints, which be part of the lower spine to the pelvis.

sacrum: The larger triangular bone on the bottom of the spine.

SAD: Abbreviation for seasonal affective dysfunction, unhappiness and despair launched on by a shortage of publicity to sunlight. SAD usually appears inside the fall or winter and subsides inside the spring.

saline: A watery reply that accommodates a small amount of salt and is often used to handle medicine or as a substitute for plasma.

salivary gland: Certainly one of three pairs of glands that pour lubricating fluids and digestive enzymes into the mouth.

saphenous vein: A superficial blood vessel that extends from the thigh to the calf; it might be eradicated and used as a coronary bypass graft.

sarcolemma: A membrane that covers the muscle fiber and ties the tip of it to a tendon.

sarcoma: A most cancers that arises inside the snug tissues of the physique that be part of, assist, and separate totally different tissues or organs. Sarcomas can occur nearly wherever inside the physique.

satisficer: A person who might make a various and be pleased with it when provided with an risk that meets his or her necessities, without having to have a look at all selections or uncover the easiest.

saturated fat: A form of fat current in animal meals equal to meat, poultry pores and pores and skin, butter, and whole-milk dairy merchandise, as successfully in as palm and coconut oils. A weight reduction plan extreme in saturated fat tends to spice up blood ranges of unhealthy low-density lipoprotein (LDL) ldl ldl cholesterol.

sausage digit: A toe or finger swollen and purple alongside its complete measurement.

scapulothoracic joint: A shoulder joint that connects the scapula to the ribs behind the chest.

Schlemm’s canal: A spherical drainage system inside the eye located the place the clear cornea, white sclera, and colored iris meet to kind an angle.

sciatica: Ache alongside the course of the sciatic nerve (which runs from the buttock, down the once more and aspect of the leg, and into the foot and toes), often attributable to a herniated disk.

scintigraphy: A diagnostic methodology based totally on the detection of vitality emitted by radioactive substances injected into the physique; moreover generally known as radionuclide scanning.

scintillations: The notion of flashing lights or strains that typically occurs by the aura of a migraine headache.

sclera: The white of the eye; a difficult, defending coating of collagen and elastic tissue that, with the cornea, makes up the outer layer of the eyeball.

scleral buckling: A surgical methodology that indents the sclera and choroid to reattach the retina.

scleroderma: An autoimmune sickness whereby the pores and pores and skin thickens and hardens; typically totally different parts of the physique are affected, and joint ache might final result.

scoliosis: An irregular lateral, or sideways, curvature of the spine.

scotoma: A clear spot inside the seen self-discipline that’s typically evident by the aura of a migraine headache.

scurvy: A sickness introduced on by vitamin C deficiency, characterised by bruising, poor wound therapeutic, bleeding of the gums, and loosened tooth.

seasonal affective dysfunction: Unhappiness and despair launched on by a shortage of publicity to sunlight. Seasonal affective dysfunction usually appears inside the fall or winter and subsides inside the spring. generally called SAD.

sebaceous gland: A gland that opens proper right into a terminal hair follicle; it secretes sebum, the pure oily conditioner of hair.

seborrheic dermatitis: A light-weight and customary state of affairs that’s characterised by an itchy, flaky scalp and that may lengthen to the ears, face, and chest. Additionally generally called dandruff.

secondary hypertension: Excessive blood stress that has an identifiable, often correctable, set off equal to kidney sickness, hyperthyroidism, sleep apnea and totally different conditions.

secondary osteoporosis: Bone loss associated to an identifiable medical state of affairs, remedy with certain medicine, or immobility.

secretion: The launch of chemical substances produced by the physique; or the substance that’s produced.

sed value: Shorthand for erythrocyte sedimentation value—a examine involving purple blood cells used to check for numerous infections, inflammations, and cancers.

sedative: A drug or a course of that has a calming impression and relieves anxiousness and stress.

seizure: A sudden, involuntary contraction of muscle tissues that results in rhythmic contortions of the physique, often accompanied by an absence of consciousness. Often known as a convulsion.

selective estrogen receptor modulators: Chemically synthesized medicine that mimic estrogen in some tissues nonetheless act to dam estrogen’s ends in others.

selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors: Antidepressants that block the reuptake of serotonin into the neurons that launched it, leaving further serotonin on the market to nerve cell receptors. Generally used to take care of despair and totally different mood issues.

self-help group: A bunch of folks that meet to debate and supply assist to 1 one different with the target of providing social assist for altering troubling habits patterns.

seminal vesicles: Buildings surrounding the prostate gland involved in storing secretions made by the gland.

senescence: Gradual lack of physique options introduced on by the natural ageing course of, which is able to enhance hazard of sickness, incapacity, and lack of life.

senile dementia: Prognosis as quickly as given to people over 65 with dementia.

sensate focus strategies: A set of structured exercise routines that intercourse therapists use to help {{couples}} take care of the sensual components of bodily contact with out stress to achieve orgasm.

sensorineural listening to loss: Everlasting listening to loss introduced on by damage to the cochlea, hair cells, or auditory nerve.

sepsis: The destruction or an an infection of tissues by disease-causing organisms, usually accompanied by a fever.

septicemia: A state of affairs whereby disease-causing organisms have unfold to the bloodstream from an an an infection elsewhere inside the physique. Additionally generally called blood poisoning.

septum: A wall or totally different building that divides one cavity from one different. As an illustration, inside the coronary coronary heart the muscular septum separates the correct aspect of the heart from the left aspect.

SERMs: Abbreviation for selective estrogen receptor modulators, chemically synthesized medicine that mimic estrogen in some tissues nonetheless act to dam estrogen’s ends in others.

seroma: A pocket of lymphatic fluid that builds up at an incision after surgical process.

serotonin: A neurotransmitter that helps regulate sleep and urge for meals, mediate moods, and inhibit ache.

serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors: Antidepressants that gradual the reuptake of every serotonin and norepinephrine into the neurons that launched these substances, leaving further serotonin and norepinephrine on the market to nerve cell receptors. Generally used to take care of despair and totally different mood issues.

sesamoiditis: A painful irritation in and spherical two small bones generally called sesamoids, located beneath the underside of the huge toe, on the ball of the foot.

set: A selected number of repetitions of an prepare carried out as a bunch.

sexual dysfunction: A problem with any house of a person’s sexual response that causes distress.

shock: A essential medical state of affairs whereby there too little blood flows to the outer components of the physique, resulting in chilly, sweaty pores and pores and skin; a weak pulse; irregular respiration; and dilated pupils. Shock might be introduced on by an absence of blood, excessive coronary coronary heart points, excessive infections, allergic reactions, or drug overdoses.

short-term memory: Data the thoughts outlets shortly, from milliseconds to minutes.

shunt: A instrument inserted into the physique to redirect the transfer of blood or totally different fluid from one house to a special.

aspect impression: An undesirable, and usually dangerous, response introduced on by treatment or totally different remedy.

sigmoid colon: Part of the colon ensuing within the rectum that makes an S-shaped curve.

sigmoidoscopy: Inside examination of the rectum and sigmoid colon using a flexible viewing tube inserted by the use of the anus.

signature strengths: Character strengths equal to curiosity, integrity, and modesty that people set up with, acknowledge having, and luxuriate in using.

sildenafil citrate: The energetic ingredient in Viagra. It blocks the breakdown of cyclic guanosine monophosphate, a chemical important for an erection.

silent coronary coronary heart assault: Coronary heart assault that occurs with out ache or indicators; occurs largely inside the aged or in people with diabetes.

silent ischemia: Scarcity of oxygen provide to the heart muscle that causes no indicators.

single-photon absorptiometry: A examine using gamma rays to measure bone density, usually inside the forearm.

sinoatrial node: The pure pacemaker of the heart. Positioned within the correct atrium, the sinoatrial node, generally called the sinus node, initiates the heart’s electrical train.

sinus node: A specialised group of coronary coronary heart cells within the correct atrium that generate {{the electrical}} impulses that set off the heart muscle to contract. Often known as the heart’s pure pacemaker.

sinus rhythm: The coronary coronary heart’s common value and rhythm.

skeletal muscle tissues: Muscle tissue related to bones all by the physique that allow voluntary movement to occur.

pores and pores and skin resurfacing: Any of a variety of approaches to boost pores and pores and skin texture, tone, wrinkle look, and discolorations by promoting new collagen and epidermal progress. Chemical peels, dermabrasion, microdermabrasion, and laser procedures are skin-resurfacing strategies.

sleep apnea: Non permanent pause in respiration all through sleep, lasting a minimal of 10 seconds and associated to a fall in blood oxygen or arousal from sleep. Obstructive sleep apnea is introduced on by an obstruction inside the airway blocking air transfer; central sleep apnea occurs when the thoughts shortly stops sending alerts to the muscle tissues that administration respiration.

sleep construction: The pattern made when sleep phases are charted on a hypnogram.

sleep paralysis: A way of paralysis that may occur by the transition between wakefulness and sleep if the REM sleep stage begins sooner than a person is completely asleep; classically associated to narcolepsy.

sleep spindles: On an electroencephalogram (EEG), transient rhythmic bursts of train that appear all through stage 2 sleep.

sling: A slender piece of cloth surgically inserted beneath the urethra or bladder neck to supply assist and improve continence.

slipped disk: See herniated disk.

slipped vertebra: Ahead displacement of a vertebra in relation to the vertebra immediately beneath; moreover generally known as spondylolisthesis.

slit lamp: An instrument that magnifies inside buildings of the eye with the assistance of a thin beam of sunshine. Often known as a biomicroscope.

slow-twitch fiber: Certainly one of two vital types of skeletal muscle fibers. Sluggish-twitch fibers are recruited most intently for endurance (cardio) exercise routines. See moreover fast-twitch fiber.

slow-wave sleep: Sleep phases 3 and 4; all through slow-wave sleep the thoughts turns into a lot much less attentive to exterior stimuli.

small intestine: A little bit of the digestive system that options the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum and performs the important thing operate in absorbing nutritional vitamins for the physique.

SMART: An acronym for an methodology to setting targets for behavioral change: set a extremely Particular goal; uncover a way to Measure progress; be certain that it’s Achievable; be certain that it’s Real looking; and set Time commitments.

Snellen chart: The usual eye chart used to examine imaginative and prescient with strains of block letters in progressively smaller sizes.

somatization: Bodily indicators that don’t have any clear bodily set off or are out of proportion to a given ailment, and can stem from psychological causes.

somnambulism: Sleepwalking.

somniloquy: Speaking in a single’s sleep.

sorbitol: A crystalline sugar alcohol used as a sweetening agent.

spacer: A gap chamber into which inhaled medicines might be squirted sooner than inhalation. Spacers are used with metered-dose inhalers to help ship medication efficiently to the bronchial tubes and to reduce the amount of medicine left behind on the tongue and throat.

spasm: An involuntary muscle contraction.

sphincter: A hoop of muscle that surrounds a niche and might be contracted to close the opening. As an illustration, the muscle tissues found on the anus and the opening of the bladder are sphincters.

sphygmomanometer: A instrument for measuring blood stress.

spina bifida: A congenital defect whereby part of the spinal column fails to develop completely, leaving part of the spinal wire uncovered.

spinal fusion: A course of to attach two or further vertebrae with a bone graft in an effort to eradicate motion and relieve ache.

spinal stenosis: A narrowing of the spinal canal, which can find yourself in compression of nerve roots.

spinal faucet: Use of a gap needle to withdraw fluid from the lower part of the spinal canal for testing. Often known as a lumbar puncture.

spinous course of: The lever-like backward projection extending off each vertebra, to which muscle tissues and ligaments are related.

spirometer: A instrument that measures airway obstruction, used to diagnose bronchial bronchial asthma and resolve the severity of the state of affairs.

spirometry: A straightforward, painless respiration examine carried out in a health care provider’s office or pulmonary function laboratory that measures how briskly air might be pressured from the lungs and the complete amount of air which may be emptied from the lungs.

splenic flexure syndrome: A painful spasm inside the left greater abdomen beneath the rib cage, produced by areas of trapped gasoline inside the colon.

spondylolisthesis: Ahead displacement of a vertebra in relation to the vertebra immediately beneath.

spondylosis: A standard time interval for degeneration of the spine that causes narrowing of the spinal canal and the small openings (intervertebral foramina) by the use of which spinal nerves exit the canal.

spongy bone: Porous bone, moreover generally known as trabecular bone, often found on the center of prolonged bones.

sprain: A stretched or torn ligament.

sputum: A mixture of saliva and mucus that’s coughed up from the respiratory tract. Sputum may be examined in a laboratory for indicators of sickness.

squamous cell: Flat, scaly epithelial cell.

SSRIs: Abbreviation for selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, antidepressants that block the reuptake of serotonin into the neurons that launched it, leaving further serotonin on the market to nerve cell receptors. Generally used to take care of despair and totally different mood issues.

regular angina: Angina pectoris (chest ache with exertion or stress) that’s well-controlled with medicines and lifestyle changes.

regular coronary artery sickness: Narrowings inside the coronary coronary heart arteries that set off angina pectoris in a predictable and regular pattern over time (as an example, after strolling a certain distance).

phases of change: A model for the best way people make changes of their lives. In keeping with this model, changes in habits are made step-by-step and in comparatively distinct phases.

staging: The strategy of determining how far most cancers has progressed. Staging is often used to seek out out the easiest course of remedy.

standardized extract: An pure product whereby what’s believed to be the energetic ingredient meets a longtime commonplace of power.

statins: Ldl cholesterol-lowering medication that intervene with the enzyme 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase; usually generally known as HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors. Statins work by altering one of the simplest ways the liver processes lipids.

stenosis: An irregular narrowing of a passageway, equal to a blood vessel, or totally different type of opening inside the physique.

stent: A wire mesh gadget inserted into an artery to prop it open as quickly as a blockage has been cleared by angioplasty.

sterilization: 1) A surgical course of or totally different methodology that results in a person being unable to breed. 2) The course of by which provides are completely cleaned of all organisms which may set off sickness or an an infection.

steroids: One other time interval for corticosteroids—steroid medication made to mimic hormones produced naturally by the adrenal glands. They’re used to take care of quite a lot of effectively being points.

stimulant: A substance that quickens chemical reactions inside cells and gives a raise of vitality. Examples embrace caffeine and amphetamine.

stomach: The sac-like organ of the digestive system between the esophagus and the duodenum which breaks down meals and strikes it alongside to the small intestine to be digested.

strain: A stretched or torn muscle or tendon, usually introduced on accidentally, misuse, or overuse.

stratum corneum: Essentially the most superficial layer of the dermis.

power: The potential of muscle tissues to exert strain.

power teaching: In style time interval for exercise routines that harness resistance offered by physique weight, free weights equal to dumbbells or weighted cuffs, resistance bands, or specialised machines; usually generally known as resistance teaching or weight teaching.

streptokinase: A thrombolytic (clot-dissolving) agent designed to dissolve the blood clots that block an artery all through a coronary coronary heart assault or stroke.

stress: An innate survival response whereby certain hormones are launched, rising blood transfer to the thoughts or coronary coronary heart. The stress response ends in an vitality surge, enabling a person to flee dangerous circumstances. Ongoing stress, nonetheless, can sap vitality and damage effectively being.

stress fracture: A hairline crack in a bone that usually occurs from overuse; left untreated, this may occasionally sometimes end in displacement of the bones.

stress response: Physiological changes, equal to quickened respiration and heartbeat and elevated blood stress, launched on by stress hormones launched in response to an precise or perceived threat to safety. Often known as the fight-or-flight response.

stress examine: A diagnostic examine whereby cardiovascular measurements equal to coronary coronary heart value, blood stress, and electrical train are recorded whereas the heart is being confused (usually by having the person prepare on a treadmill or bicycle).

stressors: Traumatic events or circumstances that might be precise or perceived threats to equilibrium and well-being.

stria: A line, streak, or band, such as a result of the stretch marks that occur in being pregnant.

stricture: The irregular narrowing of a gap passage inside the physique, such as a result of the esophagus or the urethra.

stroke: Blockage or rupture of a blood vessel supplying the thoughts; often ends in impaired thoughts function or lack of life.

stupor: A state of lethargy and unresponsiveness.

subacute: A sickness or state of affairs that progresses slower than an acute state of affairs nonetheless faster than a continuing state of affairs.

subacute thyroiditis: A painful mannequin of thyroid irritation introduced on by viral an an infection. Signs are flu-like and embrace fever, muscle aches and pains, and a painful, swollen thyroid gland. Additionally generally called de Quervain’s thyroiditis.

subarachnoid hemorrhage: A hemorrhagic stroke that occurs when a blood vessel on the ground of the thoughts bursts and bleeds into the home between the thoughts and the skull; usually introduced on by an aneurysm or totally different blood vessel malformation.

subarachnoid home: House contained within the thoughts the place cerebrospinal fluid circulates.

subcutaneous: Beneath the pores and pores and skin.

subcutaneous tissue: Deepest layer of pores and pores and skin, which consists of connective tissue and fat.

subdural hematoma: A blood clot inside the thoughts between the cerebral cortex and the dura.

subendocardial myocytes: Coronary heart-muscle cells on the inside of the heart chambers; these cells are extraordinarily susceptible to interrupt from blockages of the important thing coronary arteries.

substance abuse: Continued substance use no matter substance-related social or interpersonal points.

substance dependence: A state of affairs characterised by excessive and often compulsive substance use, impaired administration over substance use, continued use of medicine no matter antagonistic penalties, and withdrawal indicators that emerge when the substance use is discontinued.

subunit vaccines: Vaccines using solely part of a microbe—the antigens—to elicit an immune response; these vaccines are prone to set off fewer antagonistic reactions than vaccines which embrace the complete microbe.

sulcus: The V-shaped gap on the margin of the tooth and gum.

sulfonylureas: A class of medicines that works by stimulating the pancreas to supply further insulin.

sundowning: Confusion or disorientation beginning on the end of the day and persevering with into the night; often occurs in people with Alzheimer’s sickness or vascular dementia.

superior vena cava: The principle vein that carries deoxygenated blood from the upper physique to the heart.

superset: Two or further exercise routines blended for a further vigorous train. Throughout a superset, the entire reps of prepare A are carried out after which the entire reps of prepare B sooner than resting.

suppository: A powerful kind of treatment that’s inserted inside the rectum or vagina and absorbed into the bloodstream.

suprachiasmatic nucleus: A small group of nerve cells located inside the hypothalamus that controls the sleep/wake cycle.

supraventricular tachycardia: An abnormally fast heartbeat originating in coronary coronary heart tissue above the ventricles.

suture: The course of of sewing tissues collectively after surgical process; or the sew itself.

sympathetic nervous system: An offshoot of the autonomic nervous system; it sends alerts to rearrange the physique for movement when stress hormones are launched in response to perceived or precise dangers.

symptom-limited prepare stress examine: Train examine, usually using a treadmill or bicycle, that may enhance in subject at set phases and is stopped when the person develops chest ache, breathlessness, or extreme fatigue.

synapse: The junction between two neurons, all through which chemical neurotransmitters carry messages.

syncope: Fainting or lack of consciousness introduced on by a quick shortage of oxygen inside the thoughts.

synovectomy: Surgical elimination of the synovial membrane that strains the joints.

synovial fluid: A thick liquid that lubricates the joints and tendons.

synovial joint: Essentially the most mobile type of joint; found inside the shoulders, wrists, fingers, hips, and so forth.

synovitis: Irritation of the synovium.

synovium: A thin membrane that strains joint capsules and produces synovial fluid.

systemic: Pertaining to 1 factor that impacts the complete physique considerably than separate organs or parts.

systemic lupus erythematosus: A connective tissue sickness that will impact inside organs, nervous system, pores and pores and skin, and joints.

systole: The transient interval all through which the heart contracts all through a regular heartbeat, pumping blood into the aorta and the pulmonary artery.

systolic blood stress: The primary or prime amount in a blood stress learning; a measure of the stress blood exerts in opposition to arterial partitions when the heart contracts.

systolic coronary coronary heart failure: The shortage of capacity of the heart to pump blood successfully on account of weakening and enlargement of the ventricles. Systolic coronary coronary heart failure is often introduced on by coronary artery sickness, hypertension, and valvular coronary coronary heart sickness.

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T

T cell: Abbreviation for T lymphocyte, a type of white blood cell that’s produced inside the bone marrow and is part of the physique’s immune system.

T lymphocyte: A form of white blood cell that’s produced inside the bone marrow and is part of the physique’s immune system. Often known as a T cell.

tachycardia: An abnormally fast heartbeat, usually above 100 beats per minute.

tamoxifen: A drug utilized by women to forestall breast most cancers or its recurrence.

tamsulosin: A drug used to take care of indicators of an enlarged prostate gland. It relieves constriction of the urethra and improves urine transfer by gratifying the glossy muscle tissues inside the capsule that surrounds the prostate. In contrast to totally different medicine on this class, tamsulosin doesn’t decrease blood stress.

tangles: Often known as neurofibrillary tangles—twisted strands of proteins which is likely to be found contained within the ineffective or dying nerve cells of people with Alzheimer’s sickness.

tardive dyskinesia: Involuntary writhing actions of the arms, legs, and tongue introduced on by extreme doses of antipsychotic medicine over prolonged durations of time.

tarsal coalition: An inherited state of affairs whereby two bones of the foot are fused collectively; can result in rigid flat toes.

tartar: A hardened layer of plaque that builds up on tooth. Often known as calculus.

TDD: Abbreviation for telecommunications gadget for the deaf—tools that allows a person who’s deaf or arduous of listening to to ship and procure typed messages over the telephone.

telecommunications items for the deaf: Equipment that allows a person who’s deaf or arduous of listening to to ship and procure typed messages over the telephone.

tempo: When utilized to coach, the rely for key actions in an prepare.

temporal arteritis: Often known as cranial arteritis and large cell arteritis—irritation and damage to blood vessels supplying blood to the top and neck.

temporal lobe: One of many 4 most important subdivisions of the two hemispheres of the thoughts’s cerebral cortex. The temporal lobe performs a job in listening to, long-term memory, and habits.

tendinitis: Irritation of a tendon, usually introduced on by injury; might set off ache and restrict movement of the muscle related to the tendon.

tendon: A wire of collagen fibers that be part of a muscle to a bone.

tendonitis: Different spelling of tendinitis—irritation of a tendon, usually introduced on by injury; might set off ache and restrict movement of the muscle related to the tendon.

tenosynovitis: Swelling and irritation of the protective sheath masking the tendons, which decreases the sheath’s manufacturing of synovial fluid.

TENS: Abbreviation for transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation—the utilization of low-voltage electrical current (by the use of electrodes positioned on the pores and pores and skin) to supply pain-suppressing stimulation.

stress headache: A headache, usually delicate or cheap in depth, not accompanied by totally different indicators; ache is often felt all by the top, all through the forehead, or behind the top. Additionally generally called a muscle-contraction headache.

terazosin: A drug used to take care of indicators of an enlarged prostate gland. It relieves constriction of the urethra and improves urine transfer by gratifying the glossy muscle tissue inside the capsule that surrounds the prostate.

testosterone: A male hormone that stimulates bone and muscle progress and sexual progress in males; moreover produced in lesser portions in women, promoting intercourse drive and muscle progress.

thalamus: A thoughts building that relays sensory knowledge to totally different parts of the thoughts; moreover performs a job in memory consolidation.

theta waves: A pattern of thoughts waves on an electroencephalogram (EEG) attribute of sunshine, stage 1 sleep.

thiazolidinediones: A class of oral treatment that improves sensitivity to insulin.

thoracic: Pertaining to the chest.

thrombolysis: Breaking apart a blood clot.

thrombolytic brokers: Brokers or medication that dissolve blood clots and restore blood transfer by the use of a blocked artery; used to take care of myocardial infarction, ischemic stroke, and pulmonary embolism. Often known as clot busters. Examples embrace tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) and streptokinase.

thrombosis: Formation of a blood clot (generally known as a thrombus) in a blood vessel or chamber of the heart.

thrombus: A blood clot that varieties inside a blood vessel or chamber of the heart.

thunderclap headache: A sudden, excruciating headache that might be the outcomes of bleeding inside the head.

thymus: A specialised organ of the immune system located inside the upper-middle chest the place T cells mature.

thyroid gland: A two-lobed gland located inside the entrance of the neck beneath the larynx (voice subject). It secretes hormones that help regulate the physique’s metabolism and calcium stability.

thyroid hormone: Two iodine-containing hormones generally known as thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3). They help regulate the physique’s metabolism and calcium stability.

thyroidectomy: A surgical course of to remove all or part of the thyroid.

thyroiditis: Irritation of the thyroid gland. Sorts of thyroiditis embrace Hashimoto’s thyroiditis, subacute thyroiditis, and postpartum or silent thyroiditis.

thyroid-stimulating hormone: A hormone secreted into the bloodstream by the pituitary gland that stimulates the thyroid gland. Medical doctors measure ranges of TSH to seek out out whether or not or not a person’s thyroid hormone ranges are common.

thyrotoxicosis: The presence of an extreme quantity of thyroid hormone inside the physique. This may be introduced on by an overproductive thyroid, irritation of the thyroid, or taking an extreme quantity of thyroid hormone.

thyroxine: Certainly one of two types of most important thyroid hormone manufactured by the thyroid gland. It accommodates 4 iodine atoms. Additionally generally called T4.

TIA: Abbreviation for transient ischemic assault, a thoughts assault that resolves by itself inside 24 hours. Generally generally known as a mini-stroke, a TIA is often an early warning sign of an impending stroke.

tibia: The huge bone of the calf, or shinbone.

tic douloureux: Ache from a dysfunction of the trigeminal nerve, the chief sensory nerve of the face. Often known as trigeminal neuralgia.

ticlopidine: An antiplatelet drug that forestalls the formation of blood clots.

tincture: An pure product made by soaking an herb or totally different plant supplies in a mixture of water and alcohol to extract certain parts believed to be medicinal or useful.

tinea capitis: An itchy state of affairs of the scalp introduced on by a fungal an an infection. Additionally generally called ringworm.

tinea pedis: Athlete’s foot.

tinnitus: A ringing inside the ears or one other sound that has no exterior set off.

tissue: A bunch of cells which is likely to be specialised to do a certain job and are joined collectively to kind a physique building, equal to muscle or kidney.

tissue plasminogen activator: A clot-dissolving enzyme produced naturally inside the blood vessels and artificially produced as a medication. Tissue plasminogen activator (typically generally called tPA) is used to interrupt down blood clots inside the remedy of coronary coronary heart assault, ischemic stroke, and pulmonary embolism. tPA ought to be used inside a few hours after indicators begin.

tolerable greater consumption diploma: The very best amount of a nutrient deemed liable to don’t have any harmful effectively being outcomes for almost all healthful people when taken consistently.

tolerance: The course of by the use of which the physique turns into a lot much less attentive to a psychoactive substance or rewarding habits. Over time, people who develop tolerance need greater doses to get the equivalent impression they first acquired with smaller doses.

toll-like receptors: One class of pattern-recognition receptors, found on the surfaces of the cells of the innate immune system.

tonic: An agent believed to invigorate a specific physique organ.

tonometry: A glaucoma screening examine that measures stress inside the eye.

tooth decay: Infectious sickness that assaults the tooth. Often known as dental caries.

topical: Pertaining to an exterior flooring of the physique, such as a result of the pores and pores and skin, mouth, vagina, or anus; often used to clarify the administration of medicine that’s utilized on to such a flooring.

toxic: Pertaining to 1 factor that’s poisonous.

toxic nodular goiter: An enlarged thyroid gland with nodules that produce further thyroid hormone. This type of goiter is accountable for hyperthyroidism in lots of people over 60.

toxin: A poison, usually one produced by a residing organism.

toxoid vaccines: Vaccines that defend in opposition to harmful bacterial toxins. These vaccines embrace toxins which had been detoxified and rendered inactive.

tPA: Abbreviation for tissue plasminogen activator, a clot-dissolving enzyme produced naturally inside the blood vessels and artificially produced as a medication. tPA is used to interrupt down blood clots inside the remedy of coronary coronary heart assault, ischemic stroke, and pulmonary embolism. tPA ought to be used inside a few hours after indicators begin.

trabecular bone: Bone tissue organized in a meshwork of thin plates or beams that’s typically found on the center of prolonged bones and that composes a giant part of the hip and vertebrae. Often known as cancellous bone or spongy bone.

trabecular meshwork: A system of top quality, mesh-like tissue inside the anterior chamber of the eye by the use of which aqueous humor drains; located inside the angle the place the clear cornea, white sclera, and colored iris be a part of.

trabeculectomy: A standard surgical course of for glaucoma that creates a model new channel for fluid drainage from the anterior chamber to the sub-conjunctival home.

trabeculoplasty: A laser course of that burns small holes on the eye’s trabecular meshwork to ease the transfer of aqueous humor from the eye.

trace mineral: A mineral that’s required solely in tiny portions inside the weight reduction plan to maintain effectively being; the principal trace minerals are chromium, copper, selenium, sulfur, and zinc.

tracheostomy: A spot created by the use of the doorway of the neck and into the windpipe (trachea). It gives an air passage when the usual route for respiration is obstructed, equal to after a traumatic injury to the face or neck, or when long-term use of a respiration machine (ventilator) is required.

tracheotomy: The method used to create a tracheostomy.

traction: The strategy of putting a bone or totally different physique half beneath a pulling stress by making use of weights and pulleys to help therapeutic.

trans fatty acid: A form of fat made all through hydrogenation of liquid vegetable oil. Trans fats are found in numerous robust margarines, commercially prepared baked objects, and fried meals in numerous consuming locations. Trans fats enhance harmful low-density lipoprotein, decrease defending high-density lipoprotein, and promote blood clotting and irritation. Additionally generally called trans fat.

transcranial Doppler scanning: An ultrasound methodology that makes pictures of the important thing arteries on the bottom of the thoughts.

transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation: Using low-voltage electrical current (by the use of electrodes positioned on the pores and pores and skin) to supply pain-suppressing stimulation.

transdermal: By the pores and pores and skin.

transferrin saturation: A measure of iron circulating inside the blood.

transfusion: The strategy of taking blood from a healthful particular person and infusing it into a person whose private blood has been depleted all through surgical process or an accident, or is for some trigger not functioning appropriately. Transfusions of full blood or of specific blood cells (equal to purple cells, white cells, or platelets) are attainable.

transient ischemic assault: A thoughts assault that resolves by itself inside 24 hours. Generally generally known as a mini-stroke or TIA, a transient ischemic assault is often an early warning sign of an impending stroke.

transient ache: Minor, fleeting ache.

transmural infarction: Coronary heart assault that destroys all of the thickness of a bit of coronary coronary heart muscle.

transplantation: The strategy of eradicating an organ or totally different donated physique half from one particular person and implanting it in a single different particular person.

transrectal ultrasonography: A course of that makes use of sound waves to create an image of the prostate gland as a way of detecting most cancers. Sound waves are directed to the prostate from a probe inserted inside the rectum.

transurethral incision of the prostate: An operation used to take care of benign prostatic hyperplasia (enlarged prostate gland) whereby incisions are made in prostate tissue to alleviate stress on the urethra and ease urinary difficulties.

transurethral microwave thermotherapy: A heat treatment for benign prostatic hyperplasia (enlarged prostate gland) that makes use of microwaves to destroy prostate tissue that obstructs urine transfer.

transurethral needle ablation: A course of that makes use of radio waves to heat and destroy cells inside the prostate gland which is likely to be obstructing the urethra.

transurethral resection of the prostate: An operation used to take care of benign prostatic hyperplasia (enlarged prostate gland) whereby further prostate tissue is surgically eradicated.

transverse processes: The ringlike projection on both aspect of a vertebra to which muscle tissues and ligaments are related and, inside the chest house, to which the ribs are linked.

traumatic grief: A protracted, intense response to bereavement that impacts one in 10 people who lose a cherished one. Key indicators are lack of capacity to easily settle for the lack of life; frequent nightmares and intrusive, upsetting reminiscences; detachment from others; fastened longing for the deceased; and excessive loneliness. Additionally generally called subtle grief or continuous grief.

tremor: A rhythmic, quivering movement of muscle tissues which may be introduced on by diseases equal to Parkinson sickness, unintended results of treatment, or outdated age.

tricuspid valve: A 3-flap valve that sits between the correct atrium and the correct ventricle.

tricyclic antidepressant: A class of medicines that relieve despair by interfering with the reuptake of serotonin and norepinephrine by neurons inside the thoughts and spinal wire. At low doses, they’re environment friendly as ache medicines.

trigeminal neuralgia: Ache from a dysfunction of the trigeminal nerve, the chief sensory nerve of the face. Often known as tic douloureux.

set off: Something that will set off indicators.

set off stage: A younger house that, when stimulated, moreover elicits ache elsewhere inside the physique.

triglyceride: The principle type of fat inside the physique and inside the weight reduction plan, long-established from three fatty-acid molecules and one glycerol molecule. This fat can elevate the possibility for coronary coronary heart sickness when elevated.

triiodothyronine: Certainly one of two types of most important thyroid hormone manufactured by the thyroid gland. It accommodates three iodine atoms. Additionally generally called T3.

triptans: A class of medicines that work by constricting blood vessels inside the head and perhaps by inhibiting irritation.

trochlea: A groove in entrance of the femur the place the patella strikes as a result of the knee bends and straightens.

troponins: Proteins current in coronary coronary heart muscle that leak into the circulation all through a coronary coronary heart assault or totally different coronary coronary heart injury.

perception: A approved entity whereby property are gathered all through a person’s lifetime. That particular person might administration distributions instantly or by the use of trustees elected to carry out wants at a time or stage specified. After lack of life, remaining property are distributed to beneficiaries.

trypsin: An enzyme secreted by the pancreas that helps digest proteins.

TSH: Abbreviation for thyroid-stimulating hormone, a hormone secreted into the bloodstream by the pituitary gland that stimulates the thyroid gland. Medical doctors measure ranges of TSH to seek out out whether or not or not a person’s thyroid hormone ranges are common.

tumor: Any type of swelling or enlargement of tissues; most continuously used to clarify an irregular progress of tissue, which might be cancerous or noncancerous.

tunica albuginea: The dense fibrous membrane surrounding each corpus cavernosum and the corpus spongiosum inside the penis.

tympanic membrane: The eardrum.

tympanometry: A examine of the eardrum’s motion and stress inside the heart ear. Additionally generally called impedance testing.

type 1 diabetes: A form of diabetes, a continuing state of affairs that impacts one of the simplest ways the physique’s tissues use sugar (glucose), their vital provide of gasoline. As soon as generally known as juvenile-onset diabetes and insulin-dependent diabetes. Folks with such a diabetes don’t make enough insulin, a hormone that controls the movement of glucose into cells. They need to depend upon insulin injections.

type 1 osteoporosis: Bone loss on account of estrogen decline associated to menopause.

type 2 diabetes: A form of diabetes, a continuing state of affairs that impacts one of the simplest ways the physique’s tissues use sugar (glucose), their vital provide of gasoline. As soon as generally known as grownup -onset diabetes and non-insulin-dependent diabetes. Folks with such a the sickness have tissues that each resist the implications of insulin (a hormone that administration the movement of sugar into cells) or the physique doesn’t produce enough insulin. It’s initially dealt with with weight reduction plan, prepare, weight-loss if wished, and oral medication.

type 2 osteoporosis: Bone loss on account of ageing.

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U

ulcer: A break inside the pores and pores and skin or totally different flooring that often occurs along with irritation, an an infection, or cancerous progress.

ultrasound: A painless, noninvasive imaging methodology that makes use of high-frequency sound waves.

unopposed estrogen: Estrogen taken with out an accompanying progestogen.

unresolved losses: Private losses that aren’t acknowledged and mourned. Many psychological effectively being consultants think about that reactions to these losses crop up later, often skewing a person’s response to a very completely totally different loss.

unsaturated fat: Wholesome dietary fats from plant sources equal to vegetable oils, nuts, and full grains, along with from fatty fish. Consists of monounsaturated fat and polyunsaturated fat.

unstable angina: Chest ache that occurs or worsens in frequency, severity, or interval when a person is at rest or taking part in delicate train.

greater airway resistance syndrome: Inhalation that requires undue further exertion; this extra work might set off insomnia and daytime sleepiness.

greater esophageal sphincter: Muscular valve located on the upper portion of the esophagus that opens to allow meals or liquid to enter the digestive system.

urea: A waste product of protein digestion and metabolism.

ureter: The tube that connects each kidney to the bladder.

urethra: The tube most important from the bladder by the use of which urine is carried from the physique.

urethral hypermobility: Motion of the urethra misplaced when abdomen stress will enhance, leading to stress incontinence.

urethritis: Irritation of the urethra.

urgency: The sudden and uncontrollable should urinate or defecate.

urinary frequency: Routinely needing to urinate higher than eight situations by the day or higher than twice at night.

urinary incontinence: Incapability to control urine transfer, resulting in involuntary discharge or leakage.

urinary tract: A part of the physique that produces and excretes urine. It consists of the kidneys, ureters, bladder, and urethra.

urologist: A specialist who gives with the urinary tract and male reproductive system.

urticaria: An itchy rash of usually transient interval. Additionally generally called hives.

uveitis: Irritation of the pigmented part of the eye (the iris); might severely impact imaginative and prescient.

uvula: A small, fleshy flap of tissue that hangs from the once more of the throat over the idea of the tongue.

uvulopalatopharyngoplasty: A surgical remedy for obstructive sleep apnea that features eradicating the uvula, the tonsils, and a rim of unfastened tissue behind the style bud.

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V

vaccination: A manner of defending the physique in opposition to sickness by injecting parts or all of a microorganism that may set off the physique to develop antibodies in opposition to the microorganism and later battle off sickness.

vacuum erection items: Varied handbook or battery-operated pumps {{that a}} man can use to draw blood into the penis to create an erection.

vaginismus: Spasms of the muscle tissues throughout the vaginal opening that cease penile penetration.

valves: Buildings consisting of leaflets that divide the chambers of the heart and forestall the backflow of blood from one chamber to a special all through contraction of the heart.

variant angina pectoris: Often known as Prinzmetal’s angina, these are assaults of chest ache introduced on by spasms of a variety of coronary arteries nearly on a regular basis whereas a person is at rest.

vascular: Having to do with blood vessels and circulation.

vascular dementia: Dementia introduced on by narrowing or blockage of blood vessels inside the thoughts or by a stroke or assortment of tiny strokes. Often known as multi-infarct dementia.

vascular surgical process: An operation to boost blood transfer each by repairing leaks in blood vessels or by rerouting arteries to bypass blockages.

vasculitis: Irritation of blood vessels.

vasectomy: An operation that ties off or cuts the tubes by the use of which sperm journey from the testicles to the urethra; used as a sort of contraception.

vasoconstrictor: A substance or state of affairs, equal to medicine, chilly, fear, and nicotine, that causes blood vessels to slender and thus de­creases the transfer of blood.

vasodilation: A widening of the blood vessels that results in elevated blood transfer.

vasodilator: A substance or state of affairs that causes blood vessels to open wider and enhance the transfer of blood.

vasospasm: Uncontrollable contraction or spasm of a blood vessel.

vector: An animal or insect that transmits an infectious sickness from a reservoir to a susceptible host.

vein: A vessel that carries blood once more to the heart.

venous: Pertaining to a vein.

venous leak: Seepage of blood out of a vein.

ventilator: Machine that inflates the lungs with oxygen.

ventricle: One of many 2 lower chambers of the heart. The correct ventricle pumps blood to the lungs; the left ventricle pumps blood to the rest of the physique.

ventricular arrhythmia: Irregular coronary coronary heart rhythm that begins inside the lower chambers of the heart; this rhythm disturbance can occur as a complication of a coronary coronary heart assault and impairs the heart’s pumping potential.

ventricular fibrillation: A deadly coronary coronary heart rhythm whereby the ventricles contract independently of the atria and in a chaotic methodology.

ventricular myocardium: Coronary heart muscle that makes up the lower chambers of the heart.

ventricular rupture: Break inside the coronary coronary heart muscle that allows blood to flee into the pericardial sac.

ventricular septal defect: One or further holes inside the septum, the muscular wall separating the correct and left sides of the heart.

ventricular tachycardia: A extremely fast heartbeat that begins inside the ventricles. Ventricular tachycardia might be deadly if it renders the heart unable to pump enough blood to the physique.

venules: Small veins.

vertebra: One of many cylindrical bones that kind the spine (plural: vertebrae).

vertebral artery: Certainly one of two blood vessels that run up the once more of the neck and be a part of on the bottom of the skull to kind the basilar artery. The vertebral arteries carry blood from the heart to the thoughts.

vertebroplasty: A minimally invasive course of to stabilize compressed vertebrae and alleviate ache. A needle is inserted into the compressed portion of a vertebra and surgical cement is injected to assist the vertebra and forestall further collapse.

vertigo: Dizziness; often a spinning sensation or a way that the underside is tilting.

very low-calorie weight reduction plan: A weight-loss weight reduction plan that allows 800 or fewer power per day (usually adopted beneath medical supervision).

very-low-density lipoprotein: A lipoprotein that transports triglyceride manufactured inside the liver to fat tissue inside the physique. VLDL lastly turns into low-density lipoprotein (LDL) after the triglyceride has been eradicated.

vestibular system: The soundness organs, located inside the labyrinth inside the inside ear.

viral: Pertaining to or introduced on by a virus.

virtues: Core traits which is likely to be universally valued by philosophers and religions all through time and cultures, equal to information and braveness.

virulent: A sickness or state of affairs that’s extraordinarily infectious or dangerous or shortly progressing.

viscera: The within organs, notably these found inside the abdomen.

visceral fat: Fats that lies beneath the abdomen wall, inside the areas surrounding the liver, intestines, and totally different organs. Generally generally known as abdomen fat or abdomen adiposity.

seen acuity: The attention’s potential to see sharply, usually measured in comparison with what a regular eye would see from 20 toes. Issues in seen acuity can usually be corrected with eyeglasses.

seen cortex: The part of the occipital lobe inside the thoughts that processes seen stimuli.

seen self-discipline: The complete scope of what the eye sees; incorporates central and peripheral imaginative and prescient.

visualized laser-assisted prostatectomy: A manner used to take care of benign prostatic hyperplasia (enlarged prostate gland) that allows the surgeon to view the prostate instantly whereas it’s being shrunk by a laser beam.

vital indicators: Measurements that time out how successfully the physique is functioning, along with pulse value, respiration (respiration value), temperature, and blood stress.

vitamin D: A hormone that performs a key operate in guaranteeing the absorption of calcium from the intestines.

vitrectomy: A microsurgical course of whereby part of the vitreous humor of the eye is eradicated after which modified with sterile saline or one other fluid.

vitreous humor: The clear, gel-like substance that fills the home behind the lens of the eye and helps the type of the rear portion of the eye.

VLDL: Abbreviation for very-low-density lipoprotein, a lipoprotein that transports triglyceride manufactured inside the liver to fat tissue inside the physique. VLDL lastly turns into low-density lipoprotein (LDL) after the triglyceride has been eradicated.

VO2 max: The physique’s most functionality for oxygen consumption all through peak exertion. Additionally generally called cardio power, maximal oxygen consumption, or cardiorespiratory endurance functionality.

dangerous oils: Unstable components of a preparation that evaporate merely.

VSD: Abbreviation for ventricular septal defect—a variety of holes inside the septum, the muscular wall separating the correct and left sides of the heart.

vulnerary: An agent that’s believed to help in wound therapeutic.

vulvar vestibulitis: Irritation of the tissue throughout the opening of the vagina that makes sexual train painful.

vulvodynia: Ache inside the vulva that may or might be not launched on by contact or stress.

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W

wall stress: Drive on the wall of the heart muscle introduced on by stress inside the heart’s pumping chamber; excessive wall stress can impair the heart’s potential to pump and enhance the heart’s need for oxygen.

warfarin: An anticoagulant drug that forestalls blood clotting; people taking it ought to have widespread blood exams to seek out out that their blood doesn’t clot too readily or too slowly.

wart: An irregular fibrous progress introduced on by a viral an an infection.

water brash: Salty-tasting salivary secretions stimulated by gastroesophageal reflux.

Weber examine: A listening to examine that makes use of a tuning fork to diagnose one-sided listening to loss.

Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome: An irreversible state of acute confusion and amnesia that develops in alcoholics on account of malnutrition-related thiamine deficiency.

Wernicke’s house: The thoughts space liable for the comprehension of speech.

whiplash: The in type time interval for muscle and ligament damage ensuing from speedy and extreme extension and flexion of the neck. The time interval can be utilized for the accident inflicting the injury, most continuously a rear-end motorcar accident.

white matter: The within portion of the thoughts, composed primarily of axons, each surrounded by a myelin sheath that insulates the nerve fibers (and appears white). Messages are despatched between completely totally different areas of the thoughts (gray matter) by the use of these nerve fibers.

white-coat hypertension: Blood stress that’s elevated in a doctor’s office nonetheless is common at dwelling.

will: A approved doc that describes what should be carried out with a person’s property after his or her lack of life.

withdrawal: A response to hazard or stress characterised by apathy, lethargy, and despair; or the bodily or psychological response to a sudden lack of an addictive substance equal to alcohol or nicotine.

working memory: A form of short-term memory course of that features shortly storing and manipulating knowledge.

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X

xanthelasma: A xanthoma on the eyelid.

xanthoma: A yellow, lipid-laden deposit inside the pores and pores and skin or on a tendon.

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Y

YAG capsulotomy: A laser methodology to acceptable blurred imaginative and prescient introduced on by cloudiness that may develop inside the pores and pores and skin of the cataract left inside the eye after cataract surgical process; a laser is used to create a niche inside the membrane to allow mild to enter clearly focused onto the retina.

yohimbine: An extract of the bark of a West African tree typically utilized in treating erectile dysfunction. Yohimbine appears to increase blood transfer to the penis and forestall blood from leaving it too quickly.

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Z

zonules: Skinny, gelatinous ligaments that join the lens to the ciliary physique and assist the lens centrally behind the pupil.

zoonotic sickness: An infectious sickness that’s transmissible beneath common conditions from animals to individuals.

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